If you’re managing people who develop software you should probably be spending a nontrivial portion of your time writing documents, and the quality of those documents is critical. Documents matter because there are several questions that every manager needs to answer for their management chain:
- What’s current state of the union?
- Where are we headed over the next 12-36 months?
- What level of staffing do we need to achieve that vision?
- Are my employees compensated appropriately?
Managers also need to answer a related and partially overlapping set of questions for their employees:
- Where is the team headed?
- What’s my role in helping us get there?
- How have I been performing?
- How can I improve my performance, and grow my career?
Several tools are available to answer these questions in the modern business setting, but none are as effective as written documents. Face to face conversations or meetings are less efficient, more random, and can’t be archived for easy consumption after the fact. PowerPoint presentations require the context of a speaker (if they don’t you’re abusing PowerPoint and giving bad presentations) who is only presenting to a limited audience, so they share the archive problem of conversations. Videos or audio recordings of either conversations or presentations are impossible to quickly scan, and it’s more difficult for the person consuming the information to backtrack or skip around as needed. Email or instant messenger conversations are less formal and rigorous than documents by convention, so they allow for glossing over areas where deeper thought and investment is essential. Put simply: creating documents forces a manager to codify thoughts or ideas into an artifact that is easy for others to parse at any point down the road, with an effectiveness that no other process can duplicate.
I didn’t realize the value of written documents until I started working at Amazon almost a year ago. It’s very common at Amazon to walk into an hour long meeting and spend the first 20 minutes in silence reading and marking up a hard copy of a particular document, and spend the remaining 40 minutes discussing it. Initially I found that odd, until I went through the exercise of preparing my first long range planning document for my team and getting it iteratively reviewed by my team, peers, and various levels of my management chain. It took a lot of work, but all of that work ended up being hugely beneficial. We spent extra time meeting with customers to update requirements and get product feedback, held brainstorming sessions with team members and senior engineers who were interested in the space, and did some analysis on the cost of operations and ways that we could optimize some of that overhead. The final product was a 6 page plan that I could hand to anyone and rest assured that after a few minutes of reading they would have a great feel for what my team is up to, and why.
As a quick aside, this is a great example of why I previously wrote encouraging both software developers and managers to change companies/environments over the course of their career. There are a lot of things that I learned at Microsoft that I never could have learned at Amazon. There is an equally long list of things that Amazon does really well that I wouldn’t have learned anywhere else. Throwing yourself in a totally different neck of the woods provides a unique opportunity to grow in areas that you couldn’t have developed by staying put.
Back to documents. To clarify, I’m not talking exclusively about technical documentation like functional specifications, design documents, or test plans. I’m more focused on things like vision documents (which direction things are headed), long range planning documents (the nitty gritty on how to move in that direction), and documents about things like employee growth or promotion readiness. The neigh-sayers will argue against the value of these kinds documents because they aren’t part of what ultimately ships to the customer: the bits and bytes that get burned to a disc or deployed to a server somewhere. I would argue the exact opposite. For example taking the time to produce a long range plan that you can hand to engineers, customers, and partners can help you avoid building meaningless features, and help customers and partners give earlier feedback on where you’re headed. Similarly, taking the extra time to prepare a document evaluating an employee’s readiness for promotion is a great way to keep that employee apprised of growth areas, ensure that the employee is happy in their career progression and nip problems in the bud, and in the end save you from reduced productivity while back-filling for the attrition of an unhappy team member.
So without further ado, here are a few tips that I think will make you better at producing high quality documents:
Define your audience before you start.
In most cases it’s not possible to effectively address multiple audiences in a single document. Before you put pen to paper, define your audience. If the audience seems too broad, consider writing multiple documents instead of one. For example if you’re writing a document that tells what your team will deliver over the next 12 months, it may be appropriate to have 2 flavors of the doc: one for your management chain, and one for your customers. Your managers may want to know some of the dirty details like how much time your team spends on operations or how much test debt you need to backfill, but your customers may only care about what new incremental features your team will deliver. I’ve also seen cases where authors don’t define their audience right out the gate where the end result is a document that’s not really meaningful to any group of people.
Make bold claims. Don’t use weasel words. Be specific about dates.
Weasel words kill the impact of a document, and are a mechanism to avoid hard thinking or research that needs to happen. Consider a sentence like “Implementing this feature will represent a significant win for customers.” The sentence begs the questions: what feature, how significant, and what kind of win? Now consider the impact of rewriting it to “Implementing the features to allow multi-tenancy will allow customers to reduce the size of their fleet by 50%, resulting in a million dollar reduction in TCO.” Note that getting from A to B requires a lot of research, but the result is a statement that is much more impactful and makes it easier to gauge the value of the feature in question.
It’s equally important to be specific about dates. For example when you read something like “The feature will be completed later this year”, you should automatically ask the question: when this year? Are we talking next week, or late December? If my team has a dependency on your feature, I’ll need some more granular deets. If it’s impossible for some reason to provide a date, then provide a date by which you’ll have a date.
Finish Early, Allow Bake Time
This is critical. If your document is due in 3 weeks, plan to complete it in 1. Before you write the document you should identify peers that you want to read it, ping them to be sure that they block out time to do so, and then be sure to get them a copy on schedule. Consider iterative rounds of reviews with different groups of people that are stakeholders for the document. For example if you’re a line manager creating a vision document for your team you may want to start by getting it reviewed with a few of your peers and senior engineers, then take it to folks up your management chain, and then review the document with a few key customers. In my experience the resulting document is often drastically different (read: drastically better) than the original version.
Review, and review again. Use hard copy.
On a similar note, review your work often. Don’t write a document in one shot and call it good. When you finish it, step aside for a day and then read it afresh. Print the document out and review it in hard copy, pen in hand (and then go plant a tree). Staring at a piece of paper puts your brain in a different mindset than staring at Word on the computer screen. When you’re staring at your screen your mind is thinking rough draft, or work in progress. When you’re staring at ink on paper your mind is thinking finished product. You’re more likely to be a good editor of your document in the latter mode.
This isn’t an exhaustive list by any means, but it does include the tips that I’ve personally found to have the biggest impact on document quality. At some point I may put together a follow up list with some additional ideas on writing docs that I’ve excluded from this post. I personally apply these ideas to everything I write, including blog posts like this one. I hope that you find this helpful, and if you have additional ideas on either the value of documents or how to produce great ones I would love to hear them in the comments!